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summary
Medical Intelligence Doctrine. Concept and Organization.
Challenges of Forward Naval Surgical Support for Maritime Forces.*
The Effects of Military Boots with and without a Shock-Absorbing Insole on the Kinematic Characteristics during Uphill Walking and Running.
Epidemiological Surveillance of Transmissible Diseases on Animals in the Environment of Soldiers in French Guyana.
Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Iraqi Air Force pilots, Management and Aeromedical Disposition.*
Body Weight Control and Physical Fitness of Military Persons in the Brazilian Air Force.
A Preliminary Investigation on the Role of Spatial Disorientation in Fourth Generation Combat Aircrafts.
Adverse Drug Reactions in Soldiers.
Changes of the Mental Health Status during Super Long-Time Voyage: A Study of Chinese Warship Personnel.*
 



Medical Intelligence Doctrine. Concept and Organization.
by J. ALSINA
Spain
In the present article the importance of the medical intelligence as an essential factor for the medical support planning and force health protection is discussed. The medical intelligence doctrine must be compatible in the allied environment in order to be utilized in multinational operations. The principles, intelligence cycle and organization in the Spanish Medical Service are presented.
Keywords : Intelligence, Medical Intelligence, MEDINT, Medical support.
Volume 84/2, p.6




Challenges of Forward Naval Surgical Support for Maritime Forces.*
by WE. CHOW, SY. CHUA, CH. TAN and WL. KANG
Republic of Singapore
The concept of naval operations has shifted from conventional naval warfare since World War II to the current emphasis on Peace Support Operations (PSO), Operations Other than War (OOTW) and Humanitarian Aid & Disaster Relief (HADR) operations. Increasingly Maritime Forces in the world are getting deployed in distant area of operations such as the Somali Basin and Gulf of Aden, for longer duration and possibly in a higher threat environment against non-conventional threats example during counter piracy operations. There is therefore a need to overcome the challenges of providing adequate forward naval surgical support for the Maritime Forces. This also has to be balanced against the required limited resources of medical manpower, medical logistics as well as the need for a suitable surgical platform for these deployments. This paper aims to share the Republic of Singapore Navy's experience in overcoming some of these challenges in the maritime environment. This includes the ability to deploy Surgical Containers onboard the Landing Ship Tank (LST) and Civil Resource (CR) vessel and ability to convert existing spaces onboard the LST and smaller platforms such as the frigate into surgical facilities. The flexibility and modularity of the various surgical deployment options have enabled the Republic of Singapore Navy to rapidly configure and deploy for a wide spectrum of naval operations. The key success factors such as the development of deep expertise in naval operational medicine, operationalization of 3rd generation surgical stores and enhanced inter-operability among Maritime Forces will also be highlighted. This paper was earlier presented during the 1st International Congress of Military Medicine (ICMM) Pan Asia Pacific Congress on Military Medicine held in Beijing, China 2010 which highlighted the theme of ?enhancing medical support capability through regional cooperation?.
Keywords : Naval, Surgical support, Medical, Maritime.
Volume 84/2, p.12
*Presented at the 1st ICMM Pan-Asia Pacific Congress on Military Medicine, Beijing, China, 26-29 October 2010.




The Effects of Military Boots with and without a Shock-Absorbing Insole on the Kinematic Characteristics during Uphill Walking and Running.
by P. PAISIS, B. HANLEY, K. HAVENETIDIS and A. BISSAS
Greece
The present study examined various kinematic parameters during walking and running between military boots (MB) used by the Cypriot/Greek Army (without and with commercial insoles and standard running shoes (RS). Cadence (CA) and step length (SL) were measured using a h/p/Cosmos Gaitway treadmill equipped with two Kistler in-dwelling force plates. Seven participants performed 4-min walks (5 km·h-1) and runs (10 km·h-1) at a 5% gradient under all three conditions [MB, MB + insoles (MBI), RS]. Significant differences existed in SL (p<0.05) and CA during walking between the MBI and the RS. This study suggests that the addition of extra weight (MB) on a participant?s foot had no detrimental effects on velocity characteristics during uphill walking and running. In addition, MBI instead of RS for walking facilitates longer steps at a lower cadence, something that could lead to a more efficient walking during long distance marches.
Keywords : Military boots, Insoles, Ruining shoes, Gradient, Walking, Running, Kinematic parameters.
Volume 84/2, p.19




Epidemiological Surveillance of Transmissible Diseases on Animals in the Environment of Soldiers in French Guyana.
by C.-A. de BROUCKER V. ANDRÉO, J.-L. MARIÉ and B. DAVOUST
France
Soldiers and military dogs, deployed in French Guyana, are exposed to many pathogens, some of them being proper to the South American continent. Different epidemiological studies were conducted on 276 domestics or wild animals (14 species), to assess the prevalence of ten infectious diseases, including zoonoses. Nineteen out of 34 blood samples from bovines (56%) resulted in the growth of Bartonella bovis. Forty-one dogs (47%) were serologically positive for E. canis. Depending on the tests used, the serological prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in 94 dogs varied from 5.6 to 35.7%. Five dogs were positive for D. immitis (22.7%). 30% of the samples were positive for T. gondii, including 54.5% of white-lipped peccaries. Disease control measures, for humans and for dogs, are applied within the French Armed Forces to prevent these infections, but animal epidemiological surveillance has to be carried on.
Keywords : Animal epidemiological surveillance, French Guyana. Toxoplasmosis, Trypanosoma cruzi, Bartonella infection.
Volume 84/2, p.25




Prevalence of Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease in Iraqi Air Force pilots, Management and Aeromedical Disposition.*
by M. KADHIM and H. ABDULLAH
Iraq
A cross sectional study (survey) about the prevalence of risk factors for CHD pilots like the hypertension, overweight, smoking, etc. has been done in Iraqi Air Force. From periodic flight physical examination done between Feb. 1st, 2010 and Mar. 5th, 2010, the data were collected by direct interview of each pilot by using questionnaire. Most of these pilots? age group is between 40 and 50 years old (most of them are from former Iraqi Air Force), and out of 714 members, 348 pilots were examined. Just 288 of them are actively flying with mean age 43.1 years old. Among them 83 pilots had at least one risk factor of coronary Heart Disease, 64 pilots with one risk factor, 13 pilots with two factors and just 6 pilots with three factors. We compare these results we got to the results in general Iraqi population to conclude and finally adopt sets of recommendations to be guidelines to deal with such conditions. These recommendations will be the cornerstone to build management plan of these risk factors and aeromedical dispositions.
Keywords : Pilots, Air Force, Iraq, Risk factors, Coronary heart disease, Prevalence.
Volume 84/2, p.34
* Presented at the 2nd Pan-Arab Regional Congress of Military Medicine, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia 4-9 December 2010.




Body Weight Control and Physical Fitness of Military Persons in the Brazilian Air Force.
by G. RIBEIRO MUNIZ and F. INACIO BASTOS
Brazil
The aim of this study was to review the influence of physical activity on the control of weight and to analyze actions and procedures used in the evaluation of physical fitness of military personnel from the Brazilian Air Force (FAB). The literature review made evident that obesity, sedentarism and low cardiorespiratory fitness are predictors of disease and mortality. The Physical Fitness Evaluation Test (3Teste de Avaliação do Condicionamento Físico - TACF3) applied to the staff of the Brazilian Air Force (FAB) is capable of revealing evidence of excess weight and evaluating the physical fitness of individuals. The literature clearly shows that physical activity exerts a positive influence on weight loss and the paper advances a proposal to implement a weight control program, comprising physical activity and dietary counseling, in order to improve the health of the military personnel from FAB, whether relevant alterations in the Body Mass Index (BMI) are identified in the TACF. Further studies should representative samples from different ranks and exerting different functions at FAB.
Keywords : Excess weight, Obesity, Physical activity, Fitness of military personnel.
Volume 84/2, p.42




A Preliminary Investigation on the Role of Spatial Disorientation in Fourth Generation Combat Aircrafts.
by M. LUCERTINI, C. VELSACO DIAZ, B. PUENTE ESPADA and O. SARLO
Italy
Spatial Disorientation (SD) represents one of the major threats in flight safety, especially in military activities. Due to the potentially increased risk of SD related to atypical flight envelopes and to extreme acceleration parameters, fourth generation fighter aircrafts represent an outstanding application field for SD training. The present study aims at analyzing the results obtained in a preliminary brief survey dedicated to various aspects of SD in Italian and Spanish combat pilots operating on the fourth generation Typhoon Eurofighter (EFA). Globally, 26 pilots from the Italian (16) and Spanish (10) Air Force participated to this study. A brief anonymous questionnaire was administered, which included a specific investigation on several aspects directly or indirectly related to SD onset, training and recovery. A comparison between the incidence of SD before and after the employment on EFA was also performed. The average number of flight hours on EFA was 274, while on other aircrafts previously flown it was 1445. As expected, most pilots reported the occurrence of SD during their flight career (20 out of 26: 77%). During flight activity on EFA, ten subjects (38%) reported SD episodes and one the operational use (i.e. not for training purposes) of the "disorientation recovery function". Additionally, symptoms of simulator sickness were evoked in 2 subjects (8%) during EFA simulator rides. Although these data should be considered with caution, due to the reduced number of subjects that could be examined and to the short duration of the follow up, a significant role of a specific SD training can be foreseen, dedicated to its demonstration, avoidance and recovery. Finally, the possible onset of symptoms of simulator sickness during EFA simulator rides, should also be taken into account in the flight planning activity.
Keywords : Spatial disorientation in flight, Aircrews, Pilots, Combat aircrafts, Survey.
Volume 84/2, p.50




Adverse Drug Reactions in Soldiers.
by P. BRZEZINSKI and M. BURY
Poland
Introduction: Every adverse and undesirable event observed after administration of the therapeutic dose of the drug is defined as adverse drug reaction. The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADR), to define the drugs inducing such reactions in soldiers. Material and methods: A retrospective analysis of medical files of the soldiers, who were hospitalized in Ustka in 2004-2008, was carried out. Due to cutaneous adverse drug reaction 33 soldiers were hospitalized. Results: ADR were mainly induced by sulphonamids, amoxycylin, spiromycin and clindamycin. Sulfonamids induced adverse events most frequently (72,72%), followed by aminopenicillin and macrolid antibiotics, particularly amoxycillin- and spiromycin containing agents, responsible for 12,5% of these reactions. Other antibiotics were responsible for undesirable events less frequently - 3,03%. Maculo-papular exanthema were in 96,97% and fixed drug eruption in 3,03%. Conclusions: Adverse drug reactions were mainly induced by cotrimoxazole, Most frequently maculo-papular exanthema.
Keywords : Antibiotics, Sulphonamides, Maculo-papular exanthema, Fixed drug eruption, Soldiers.
Volume 84/2, p.56




Changes of the Mental Health Status during Super Long-Time Voyage: A Study of Chinese Warship Personnel.*
by Y. CAO, D. CHEN, H. YE, C. YANG and Y. LIN
P. R. of China
Long-time voyage can lead to varying degrees of mental disorders which to some extent are in relation to the duration of voyage and potentially have an adverse mission impact on the warship personnel. This study investigates the changes of mental health status of warship military personnel during super long-time voyage. The 90-item Symptom Check List (SCL-90) inventory was administered to 214 men aboard a Chinese warship to determine the evolution of their mental health status during an 8-month deployment for escorting operations in the Aden Gulf. The results show that group psychology of the warship military personnel may degrade markedly in the prophase, and show great resilience in the mid anaphase during super long-time voyage, while proportion of the individuals with greater tendency for mental disorders rise notably in the anaphase. The findings of the present study could be useful for the design of mental health interventions in the naval settings.
Keywords : Mental Health, Long-time Voyage, Warship Personnel.
Volume 84/2, p.61